Professor, Faculty of Education, East China Normal University
Feb. 2014 to Oct. 2018
Post-doctoral Fellow, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
2014-2015 and 2017-2018
Lecturer for MEd and BEd, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Oct. 2010 - Feb. 2011
Teaching Assistant for MEd, Faculty of Education, The University of Hong Kong
Private tutoring has expanded over the decades and an increasing number of governments are seeking to regulate the industry. Private tutoring is widely called shadow education, since it exists because of schooling and changes as schools change. The shape, nature and functions of shadow education vary in different cultural contexts. Such variations demand different government strategies and responses from other stakeholders. This lecture unpacks the global expansion of shadow education, with attention to both general patterns and regional variations. It analyses socio-cultural and economic forces driving the rise of tutoring using comparative lenses and discusses implications for education policies and development of the wider society.
The lecture will require participation of the students. Videos and pictures of shadow education in different cultural contexts will be shown for group discussions and reflections.